MCAT Study Guide Biology Ch. 11 – Respiratory System 2017-08-15T06:45:06+00:00

I.          11.1:  FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

A.     Gas exchange

B.     pH regulation

1.     Exhaling CO2 raises pH

C.    Thermoregulation

D.    Protection from disease and particulate matter

Hormone Effect on bone Effect on kidneys Effect on intestines
PTH ↑ osteoclasts ↑ reabsorption of Ca++, stimulates conversion of vit D into calcitriol indirectly (via calcitriol) ↑ intestinal Ca++ absorption
Calcitriol minor ↑ osteoclasts ↑ reabsorption of phosphorus ↑ intestinal absorption of Ca++
Calcitonin ↓ osteoclasts ↓ reabsorption of Ca++ n/a

 

II.          11.2:  ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

A.     CONDUCTION ZONE

1.     nose → pharynx → larynx → trachea → bronchi → terminal bronchioles → respiratory bronchioles → alveolar ducts → alveoli

B.     RESPIRATORY ZONE

1.     Respiratory epithelium

2.     Surfactant

 

III.          11.3:  PULMONARY VENTILATION

A.     PLEURAL SPACE AND LUNG ELASTICITY

1.     Tidal volume (TV) – the amount of air that moves in and out with normal breathing (about 10% of total volum)

2.     Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – the amount of air that can be expired after passive expiration

3.     Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)– the amount of air that can be inspired after relaxed inspiration

4.     Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) – the amount of air left in the lungs after a resting expiration

5.     Inspiratory Capacity (IC) – Maximal volume of air which can be inhaled after resting expiration (IRV + TV)

6.     Residual Volume (RV) – the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the strongest possible expiration

7.     Vital Capacity (VC) – max air that can be forced out after taking the biggest breath

8.     Total Lung Capacity (TLC) – what it says. VC + RV

B.     PULMONARY VENTILATION:  VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES

 

IV.          11.4:  GAS EXCHANGE

A.     THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION

 

V.          11.5:  REGULATION OF VENTILATION RATE

A.     Peripheral chemoreceptors

Located in aorta and carotid arteries, monitor the PO2, PCO2, and pH

B.     Central chemoreceptors

Located in the medullary respiratory control center and monitor the PCO2 and pH in the CSF

 

VI.          11.6:  STRUCTURE AND LAYERS OF THE SKIN

A.     Epidermis is above the dermis, which is above the subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis), which is fat

B.     Stratum basale

The cells located at the deepest part of the epidermis that go through mitosis and replenish cells as they flake off

C.    Dermis

Contains blood vessels, sensory receptors, sweat/sebaceous glands, and hair follicles

 

VII.          11.7:  TEMPERATURE AND REGULATION BY THE SKIN

MCAT Study Guide Biology - Kim Matsumoto


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